Mental health problems include depression, anxiety, eating disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, ADHD and self-harm.
Research indicates that 10% of children and young people (aged five to 16) has a clinically diagnosable mental health problem (around three in every classroom), and 20% of adolescents may experience a mental health problem in any given year. These problems disproportionately affect those children and young people from lower income households and areas of deprivation.
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) embrace the range of services across agencies – NHS, local authorities, third and independent sectors – that contribute to the mental healthcare of children and young people (and their families and carers).
Professionals who contribute to CAMHS include mental health nurses, child and adolescent psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and social workers.
Supporting an increasing number of people identified with mental health problems is one of the greatest public health challenges of our time.
In order to achieve this we are campaigning for increased investment to deliver a wide-range of high-quality, well-resourced and quickly accessible CAMHS. This will assist in the provision of adequate staffing and includes primary care, community-based services and specialist CAMHS outpatient and inpatient services.
Focus on prevention and early intervention
We are seeking a radical shift towards preventing poor mental health and promoting wellbeing, as well as early intervention. This includes greater investment in primary care and community support, as well as greater support within schools. The provision of easily accessible community based support can reduce the need for referral to more specialist and costly CAMHS, which are under considerable pressure and can result in long waiting times for treatment.
We are also seeking greater partnership working between the public sector and independent and third sector service providers, so that those children and young people with mental health problems receive the best possible care and support, tailored to their individual needs.
The number of those seeking treatment for mental health problems has increased significantly, including those presenting with more complex needs. However, the impact of austerity and a lack of resourcing, including staffing, means that services are overstretched and unable to adequately address this demand.
Many children and young people with mental health problems, for which an early diagnosis and treatment are essential, are therefore not receiving appropriate care and support.
It is vital that there is increased investment and adequate staffing to deliver more efficient and effective CAMHS, with a focus on prevention and early intervention.
If a child or young person with mental health problems is left without support and access to treatment the worst their outcomes are, resulting in a potentially high cost to society and the economy.
The social and economic impacts of these problems if they are not treated and persist into adult life are well-recognised. Those affected, for example, are more likely to die younger, be unemployed, become homeless, or end up in extremely costly long-term care.
Ensuring that children and young people with mental health problems can quickly access the appropriate treatment is vital in assisting them reach their full potential.
Our campaigning is currently focused on two key areas of concern:
1. Waiting times to access CAMHS
2. A lack of appropriate inpatient mental health facilities
The Scottish Government has set a target for the NHS in Scotland to deliver a maximum waiting time of 18 weeks from a child or young person’s referral to treatment for specialist CAMHS. This is in itself still far too long and would not be tolerated for those with physical health issues.
Faced with a greatly increased demand and a lack of resourcing, including inadequate staff numbers in certain areas, NHS Scotland, including a number of health boards, is failing to meet this target. This has led to a ‘postcode lottery’ when it comes to the treatment of those with mental health problems.
Any delay in diagnosis and appropriate support for the child or young person concerned, as well as for their family, can have a devastating impact. Investment in these services will also serve to prevent longer-term social and economic costs.
We are seeking to ensure that all health boards meet the waiting time target, with Action Plans that include clear, funded and measurable timetables put in place for those currently failing to meet this.
Despite increasing demand there are only 48 specialist hospital beds provided within the NHS in Scotland for adolescents with mental health problems. These are located in three CAMHS inpatient units – Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee – with no provision north of Dundee. In addition, there is no secure inpatient provision in Scotland for children and young people with a severity of mental health needs that require such support.
For children and young people who require inpatient mental health care, a lack of specialist beds means that they sometimes remain at home, often until the family reaches crisis point.
Some are admitted to CAMHS inpatient units which are often far from home, leaving them isolated from family and friends, which is detrimental to their recovery.
Others are admitted to adult mental health or paediatric hospital wards, settings which are inappropriate for their needs. Figures from the Mental Welfare Commission indicate that there were 135 admissions of children and young people (under-18) to such wards in 2015/16.
Under the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003, a responsibility is placed on health boards to provide accommodation and services to meet the needs of persons under the age of 18.
Despite this, vulnerable children and young people are still being admitted to wards which are inappropriate to their circumstance and do not provide the specialist support required.
We are seeking to ensure that a child or young person requiring inpatient mental health care receives it in a timely manner, delivered in an appropriate setting.